This article is part of the Woodleaf Farm Organic Systems Description.
Table 2. Soil Health Trends, Targets and Amendments
|Soil health indicator||Trend||Woodleaf target||Current status/Trends (1982–2014)||Amendments/Fertilizers|
|Soil organic Matter (SOM)||4–10%||Increased from an average of 2.2% to 5.1% (Fig. 1). ||Yard waste compost is applied two to four times annually at 2 tons/acre (4–8 tons/year on peaches, 0–4 tons/year on apples and pears). Residues derived from the living mulch and chipped branches are also applied annually.|
|Cation exchange capacity (CEC)||9–16 meq/100g||Increased from an average of 9.5 to 11.7 meq/100g (Fig. 2).||Associated with increases in SOM.|
|Nitrogen (N)|| |
1982–2012: annual tree growth of 10–16"
2013–2015: annual tree growth of 10–20"
|Average total Kjeldahl N is high (3,204 ppm) (Fig. 4). Nitrate-N has decreased from an average of 23 to 9 ppm (Fig. 3).||Woodleaf adds N by applying yard waste compost and mowed residues from the living mulch.|
|Potassium||No ppm target; |
4–7% of cation base saturation
|Increased from an average of 127 to 173 ppm (Fig. 16) Current percent of cation balance is 5% (Fig. 19). ||In the past, Woodleaf has applied sulfate of potash (50% K, 18% S). |
Potassium is also applied in the foliar mineral mix. Residues derived from the living mulch and chipped branches and yard waste compost are also applied annually.
|Phosphorus (P)—P1 weak Bray||25 ppm minimum; 40–80 ppm ideal||Increased from an average of 46 to 95 ppm (Fig. 17). ||Phosphorus is added in residues derived from yard waste compost and mowed living mulch.|
|Calcium||No soil ppm target; 68–70% of cation base saturation||Increased from an average of 1,202 to 1,524 ppm (Fig. 13). ] Current percent of cation balance is 67% (Fig. 14).||Gypsum (22% Ca, 16% S) is applied annually. In the past, limestone (33% Ca) was used. Ca is also applied in the foliar mineral mix. Compost and living mulch also provides some Ca.|
|Magnesium (Mg)||No soil ppm target; 15% of cation base saturation||Increased from an average of 229 to 240 ppm (Fig. 18). Current percent of cation balance is 18% (Fig. 15).||Mg is not added. Carl Rosato's goal is to reduce the Mg percent of cation balance from 18% to 15%. Compost supplies some Mg.|
|Sulfur (S)||20 ppm minimum; 30 ppm ideal||Decreased from an average of 17 to 14 ppm with great year-to-year variability (Fig. 8).||In the past, S (92%) was applied as a soil amendment. Currently, gypsum (22% Ca, 16% S) is applied annually. Manganese sulfate (23% S) was applied in 2014. S is also supplied by the foliar mineral mix and by lime sulfur applied for disease management (Disease Table 4).|
|Manganese (Mn)||15 ppm minimum;30 ppm ideal||Decreased from an average of 6 to 4.5 ppm (Fig. 9).||Manganese sulfate (31% Mn) was applied in 2014. Mn is also applied in the foliar mineral mix, and some is supplied by compost.|
|Iron (Fe)||20 ppm minimum; above 40 ppm ideal.||Decreased from an average of 60 to 44 ppm (Fig. 21).||Fe is applied in the foliar mineral mix, and some is supplied by compost.|
|Boron (B)||0.8–2.0 ppm; 1.5 ppm ideal||Decreased from an average of 0.9 to 0.4 ppm (Fig. 7).||B is applied annually at 10 lb/acre and in the foliar mineral mix.|
|Zinc||4-10 ppm; 6-8 ppm ideal||Increased from an average of 5.8 to 7.9 ppm (Fig. 5).||Zn is not added. Some is supplied by compost.|
|Copper (Cu)||1.5–4.0 ppm||Increased from an average of 2 to 5.2 ppm (Fig. 6). ||Cu is not added. Foliar copper-based pesticides were applied regularly on peaches for disease management in the 1990s (Disease Table 4).|
|pH||6.3–6.8||Decreased from an average of 6.7 to 6.4 (Fig. 20).||Limestone (33% Ca) was applied in the past.|
This table is part of the Woodleaf Farm Organic Systems Description.
Table of Contents:
- System Overview.
- Soil Management System Description
- Insect Pest Management System Description
- Disease Management System Description