Adapted with permission from: Mendenhall, K. (ed.) 2009. The organic dairy handbook: a comprehensive guide for the transition and beyond. Northeast Organic Farming Asociation of New York, Inc., Cobleskill, NY. (Available online at: http://www.nofany.org/organic-farming/technical-assistance/organic-dairy, verified 18 July 2012).
Housing for adult cattle varies with climate, finances, and farmer preference. Housing on organic farms varies from year-round housing on pasture with run-in sheds or woodlots for shelter to freestalls and greenhouse constructions. Certain cow comfort basics must be met in all housing designs. Discomfort, dirty conditions, and poor ventilation will stress the immune system and cows will be more susceptible to disease. During the grazing season, all cattle over the age of six months must have pasture, and during the non grazing season, they must have daily outdoor access and exercise unless one of the exemptions in §205.239 (b) & (c) applies.
Good air exchange is essential. Fresh air should enter the barn and move warmer, contaminated air out. The temperature difference between the outside and inside during winter months should be no more than 10°F.
Dry pasture that is free of small stones is the ideal surface for cow health and lameness prevention. Standing on hard concrete all day can cause hoof damage and can strain the cows’ feet and legs. Cows sometimes do spend the majority of the day indoors, for example, during the harsh Northeast winters. Avoid slick concrete flooring so cows do not slip and can feel secure enough to express natural heats. Concrete floors can be grooved to provide better traction (grooves should be 0.5 inches deep, 0.5 inches wide and 2 to 3 inches apart) or rubber mats may be used for comfort and to provide good footing.
Access to Feed and Water
Cows housed in tiestall and stanchions have their own assigned bunk space for feeding. In freestall situations, at least 30 inches of bunk space per cow is recommended. If there is only 16 to 24 inches of bunk space per cow, the risk for fresh cow disease increases.
Daily water requirements for dairy cows vary with weather, type and quality of feed, and production. A 1,500 pound cow producing 40 pounds of milk on a 40°F day requires 18 gallons of water per day; on a 80°F day, she will need 25.5 gallons of water per day. The recommended water trough size (if individual waterers are not available) is 3 inches per cow.
Cows prefer to spend much of their day lying down (12 to 14 hours). Blood flow through the udder increases by 30% when cows are resting, thereby increasing milk production. Time spent lying in stalls also increases rumination and rests the cows’ feet and legs.
Properly designed stalls should allow cows to have the freedom to lunge and move forward and side to side while rising and lying down, but they should not be so wide that cows lie improperly in stalls and cleanliness is an issue. Stalls should be properly sized for both breed size and age of cattle (heifers require smaller stalls than adult cattle). Guidelines for sizing stalls (both tie- and freestalls) are included in Table 1.
|Stall Type||Dimension||Ratio & Reference Body Dimension||Average Holstein|
|Tiestall Facilities||Bed length||1.2 x rump height||1.2 x 60 = 72"|
|Tie rail height above cow's feet||0.8 x rump height||0.8 x 60 = 48"|
|Stall width||2.0 hook bone width||2.0 x 26 = 52"|
|Freestall Facilities||Stall length from curb to solid front||2.0 x rump height||2.0 x 60 = 120"|
|Stall length for open front (head to head)||1.8 x rump height||1.8 x 60 = 108"|
|Bed length (imprint length)||1.2 x rump height||1.2 x 60 = 72"|
|Neck rail height above cow's feet||0.83 x rump height||0.83 x 60 = 50"|
|Neck rail forward location (bed length)||1.2 x rump height||1.2 x 60 = 72"|
|Stall width (loops on center)||2.0 hook bone width||2.0 x 26 = 52"|
|Space between brisket board and loop||Foot width||5"|
|Brisket board location (from curb)||1.1 x rump height||1.1 x 60 = 66"|
|Source: OMAFRA, 2007. http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/livestock/dairy/facts/info_tsdimen.htm.|
Bedded and composted bedded packs are increasing in popularity. Loose housing barns provide cows with one large resting area rather than individual stalls so these types of facilities are also quite economical. Bedded packs canprovide great cow comfort and reduced lameness when managed properly. Ideally, a 100 square foot area (or more) is allotted per cow. Sawdust, straw, or shavings are the most common bedding materials for bedded packs.
Good management practices are essential to maintain cleanliness and to reduce bacterial growth in packs. In compost bedded packs, the top 10 to 12 inches of bedding should be stirred twice daily while the cows are being milked. Fresh bedding should be added daily so the top surface (which is in contact with the cow) remains clean and dry.
Bedding is essential for cow comfort and cleanliness and falls into two categories (organic and inorganic). The choice of bedding for your farm depends on your manure handling system, availability, price, and personal preference. Remember, 205.239 (a) (2) requires that if roughages are used as bedding, they must be certified organic. It is also important to remember that with inorganic bedding, bacterial numbers can soar into the millions if it is contaminated with manure, milk, feed, or urine. Any bedding can be acceptable if the stalls are groomed regularly and fresh clean bedding is added on a regular basis. Table 2. reviews the advantages and disadvantages of commonly available bedding materials.
|Straw or Hay*||Organic||• Easily accessible, absorbent. |
• Works with most manure systems.
• Less expensive than others.
• Very comfortable if sufficient amounts used.
• Can be grown on the farm.
|• Good nutrient source for bacteria once wet. |
• Promotes Strep mastitis bacteria and flies.
|Sawdust/shavings (non pressure-treated wood)||Organic||• Easily sourced in Northeast. |
• Works with most manure systems.
• Low to moderate expense.
|• Supports bacterial growth when wet. |
• Associated with Klebsiella mastitis.
|Newsprint||Organic||• Easily accessible. |
• Can work with most manure systems.
|• Supports bacterial growth. |
• Glossy/colored inserts must be removed.
|Rice Hulls*||Organic||• Inexpensive. |
• Very dry.
• Work well with manure systems.
|• Supports growth of mastitis bacteria when wet.|
|Manure Solids||Organic||• Readily available. |
• Reduces waste to be spread.
• Requires investment in drying or composting system.
• Can be made on the farm.
|• Easily supports bacterial growth when wet.|
|Old Feed (TMR, silage, refusals)*||Organic||• Readily available |
|• Supports bacterial growth |
• Contaminated with yeast/mold, leading to increased yeast mastitis
|Sand||Inorganic||• Available |
• Does not support bacterial growth unless contaminated
• Excellent cow comfort
|• All manure systems may not handle well|
|Gypsum||Inorganic||• Does not support bacterial growth||• Decreased cow comfort |
• Must not come from recycled wallboard
|*Must be certified organic|
Well-maintained pastures are nature’s perfect housing, complete with good footing, ventilation, and sunshine to enhance animal health. It is no wonder then that graziers refer to it as "Dr. Green." On the other hand, poorly maintained pastures can have a severe negative impact on animal health and increase the risk of disease. Care should be taken to fence off wet areas (creeks, ponds, and swampy sections) so that cows do not stand in water or lie in mud. Shaded pasture areas can become contaminated and harbor millions of mastitis-causing bacteria if pastures are not rotated.
Evaluating Cow Comfort
You can assess cow comfort on your farm by using the NYSCHAP hock-scoring guide. More than 95% of cows should have normal hocks, without swellings or abrasions. If more than 5% of the herd has abnormal hocks, you should reassess your housing, bedding, and pasture conditions and identify areas of improvement.
Also in This Series
This article is part of a series discussing organic dairy herd health. For more information, see the following articles.
- Organic Dairy Herd Health: General Concepts
- Alternative and Complementary Treatment and Medicines
- Youngstock Management
- Reproductive Management from Breeding through Freshening
- Udder Health and Milk Quality
- Hoof Health and Lameness
- External and Internal Pests and Parasites
- Managing Disease in the Organic Herd
References and Citations
- Animal Welfare Information Center Bulletin [Online]. USDA National Agricultural Library. Available at: http://awic.nal.usda.gov/publications/animal-welfare-information-center-bulletin (verified 15 June 2012).
- de Bairacli Levy, J. 1991. The complete herbal handbook for farm and stable. Faber and Faber, London.
- Dettloff, P. 2004. Alternative treatments for ruminant animals. Acres U.S.A., Austin, TX
- Fraser, A. F. 1997. Farm Animal Behaviour and Welfare. CABI Publishing, New York, NY.
- Grandin, T. 2011. Outline of cow welfare critical control points for dairies [Online]. Grandin Livestock Handling Systems, Fort Collins, CO. Available at: http://www.grandin.com/cow.welfare.ccp.html (verified 15 June 2012).
- Karreman, H. 2006. Treating dairy cows naturally: Thoughts and strategies. Acres U.S.A., Austin, TX.
- Macleod, G. 2004. A veterinary materia medica and clinical repertory: With materia medica of the nosodes. Random House: UK.
- New York State Cattle Health Assurance Program Welfare/Cattle Care Module [Online]. New York State Cattle Health Assurance Program. Available at: http://www.nyschap.vet.cornell.edu/module/welfare/welfare.asp (Verified 15 June 2012).
- Sheaffer, C.Er. 2003. Homeopathy for the herd: A farmers guide to low-cost, non-toxic veterinary care for cattle. Acres U.S.A., Austin, TX.
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2009. Grade "A" pasteurized milk ordinance. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration. (Available online at: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/FoodSafety/Product-SpecificInformation/MilkSafety/NationalConferenceonInterstateMilkShipmentsNCIMSModelDocuments/UCM209789.pdf) (verified 15 June 2012).
- United States Department of Agriculture. 2000. National organic program: Final rule. Codified at 7 C.F.R., part 205. (Available online at: http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/retrieveECFR?gp=1&SID=f8b2967603d1a188e3b2b1ce9afbee3c&ty=HTML&h=L&n=7y22.214.171.124.32&r=PART) (verified 7 Feb 2013).
- Verkade, T. 2001. Homeopathic handbook for dairy farming. Homepathic Farm Support Ltd., Hamilton 3240, New Zealand.
- Whole Foods Market Animal Welfare [Online]. Whole Foods Market. Available at: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/meat/welfare.php (verified 15 June 2012).
- Wynn, S. and B. Fougere. 2007. Veterinary herbal medicine. Mosby-Elvesier, St. Louis, MO.